Question - What occupations and occupational situations may be associated with exposure to manganese?
Answer- The cited resource notes “Exposure to manganese dust occurs primarily in mining, ore-crushing, and metallurgical operations for iron, steel, ferrous and nonferrous alloys. Manufacturing of dry-cell batteries, anti-knock gasoline additives, pesticides (e.g. maneb), pigments, dyes, inks and incendiary devices can also lead to occupational manganese exposure. Manganese fumes are produced during metallurgical operations and several types of welding operations. The exposure can vary considerably depending on the amount of manganese in the welding wire, rods, flux and base metal. Confined space welding can significantly increase exposure to manganese fumes.” (https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/welding/; accessed November 2019)