Question -What chemical warfare agent is produced by reduction of chloropicrin using tin in the presence of hydrochloric acid?
Answer- The so-called “nettle vesicant”, CX, is produced by reduction of chloropicrin using tin in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The authors of the cited article note “Although CX is grouped together with vesicants, it is an urticant or nettle agent and not a pure vesicant as it does not lead to blister/vesicles formation. It produces intense itching and rash resembling hives upon cutaneous exposure.” Further “Its exposure in both liquid and vapor forms can cause more severe damage to the skin, eye, and lung tissues than other vesicants due to its fast penetration, immediate pain and tissue destruction. In addition, its rapid absorption through the skin can lead to immediate skin damage and severe systemic toxicity that can lead to rapid mortality. The nature of injuries caused by CX resembles those caused by acids, therefore it is often referred to as a corrosive agent.” (Goswami D eta l. Phosgene oxime: Injury and associated mechanisms compared to vesicating agents sulfur mustard and lewisite. 2018 Tox Letters 293: 112-119)