Envenomation from which animal leads to a collection of hypercatecholaminergic symptoms known as Irukandji syndrome?
Irukandji syndrome develops from envenomation from the small box jellyfishCarukia barnesi in the coastal waters of tropical Australia that is thought to produce a massive catecholamine release. Criteria needed to be classified as Irukandji syndrome include contact with seawater within 60 minutes, minor skin pain at envenomation site, symptom onset delay of 5-60 minutes, and at least three of the following: severe low back pain; muscle cramps in all four extremities, abdomen, and chest; sweating; anxiety; restlessness; nausea; vomiting; headache.
Macrokanis CJ, Hall NL, Mein JK. Irukandji syndrome in northern Western Australia: an emerging health problem.Med J Aust. 2004;181(11-12):699-702.
Submitted by: Abigail Sharpe, PharmD and Ryan Feldman, PharmD, DABAT on behalf of the Acute and Intensive Care Section