Question - What are the toxicologically related risk factors for the development of bladder cancer?
Answer - The cited article states “Smoking is the main risk factor for bladder cancer. Cigarette smokers have up to four times the risk of developing bladder cancer compared with non-smokers. Other risk factors include: Exposure to aniline dyes, Long-term cyclophosphamide use, History of pelvic radiation (as treatment for cervical, testicular or prostate cancer), exposure to chemical carcinogens associated with certain industries (e.g. rubber or leather production, aluminum smelting) and exposure to diesel exhaust and Type 2 diabetes treated with pioglitazone.” In addition, some studies indicate “consumption of large amounts of chlorinated water and coffee may play a role in bladder cancer development.” (DeSouza K et al. Prompt diagnosis key in bladder cancer. 2014 The Practitioner 258(1767):23-27)