Question- Is there an association between recent spermicide use and the development of acute pyelonephritis in healthy women?
Answer: The cited reference reports a study on 788 non-pregnant females 18-49 years of age. The authors report an odds ratio of 1.7 [CI 1.1 to 2.5] with regard to recent spermicide use associated with pyelonephritis. (Scholes D. et al. Risk factors associate with acute pyelonephritis in healthy women. 2005 Ann Intern Med 142:20-27)