Question: What is “bear spray”?
Answer: “Bear spray is a non-lethal bear deterrent designed to stop aggressive behavior in bears. Its use can reduce human injuries caused by bears and the number of bears killed by people in self-defense. Bear spray uses a fine cloud of Capsicum derivatives to temporarily reduce a bear's ability to breath, see, and smell, giving you time to leave the area.” https://www.nps.gov/yell/learn/nature/bearspray.htm; accessed March 2017 and Gervais, J. A. ; Luukinen, B.; Buhl, K.; Stone, D. 2008. Capsaicin Technical Fact Sheet; National Pesticide Information Center,
Oregon State University Extension Services. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/archive/Capsaicintech.html; accessed April 2017)