What is "Caruaru Syndrome?"
Caruaru Syndrome describes the symptoms of visual disturbance, nausea, vomiting, and weakness in 116 patients receiving hemodialysis in Caruaru Brazil in 1996. 100 of these patients developed hepatotoxicity and 52 patients died. It is reported that the cause was an algal bloom of cyanobacteria is resulted in exposure to microcystins and cylindrospermopsin during dialysis. (Azevedo, Sandra & Carmichael, Wayne & Jochimsen, Elise & Rinehart, Kenneth & Lau, Sharon & Shaw, G. & Eaglesham, Geoffrey. (2003). Human Intoxication by Microcystins during Renal Dialysis Treatment in Caruaru-Brazil. Toxicology. 181-182. 10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00491-2.)