Are “Sativa” and “Indica” separate species or varieties of one species of cannabis?
They are two varieties of one species C sativa. The vernacular names are thought to be referring to C sativa subsp. sativa var indica and C sativa subp. sativa var afghanica however there has been many variations of interbreeding and changes in nomenclature, making it difficult to trace.
McPartland JM. Cannabis Systematics at the Levels of Family, Genus, and Species. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2018 Oct 1;3(1):203-212. doi: 10.1089/can.2018.0039.
Florida/USVI Poison Information Center-Jacksonville Toxicology Fellowship