What is the main toxin contained in water hemlock (Cicuta maculata and Cicuta.douglasii)?
Cicutoxin. The proposed mechanism of action of cicutoxin is from its action as a noncompetitive gamma aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor antagonist in the central nervous system.
Welch KD, Stonecipher CA, Lee ST, Cook D. The acute toxicity of water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) in a goat model. Toxicon. 2020 Mar;176:55-58. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.02.010. Epub 2020 Feb 11. PMID: 32103796.