Which of the following was associated with higher rates of hospital admission and serious adverse outcomes in a study on Kratom exposures to poison centers: single substance ingestions or multi-substance ingestions?
Multiple-substance exposures were associated with greater odds of admission to a HCF (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 2.21–3.55) and serious medical outcomes (OR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.77–2.85) as compared with single-substance exposures. Due to the unregulated nature of kratom, there could be any number of contaminants that can have unexpected drug-drug interactions. These interactions in combination with the already unclear mechanism of action of kratom make these multi-substance ingestions highly unpredictable.
Sara Post, Henry A. Spiller, Thitphalak Chounthirath & Gary A. Smith (2019) Kratom exposures reported to United States poison control centers: 2011–2017, Clinical Toxicology, 57:10, 847-854, DOI: 10.1080/15563650.2019.1569236
Contributed by: Jeff Downen, MD, Florida Poison Information Center Network