Question: What are the pharmacological risks for the development of Clostrdium difficile infection (CDI)?
Answer: The cited reference notes “Antibiotic use is the most common risk factor for initial and recurrent CDI. Although all antibiotics are associated with increased CDI risk, clindamycin, fluoroquinolone and second generation and higher cephalosporins are associated with the highest CDI risk. Proton pump inhibitors were identified as risk factors in some studies but not confirmed in others. Other risk factors include increased age, nasogastric tube and kidney disease. (Napolitano LM and Edmiston CE. Clostridium difficile disease: Diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment update. 2017 Surgery 162:325-348)